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BLACK HOLES & QUASARSby Miles Mathis
Abstract: I will show that once again, as with everything else, theory of exotics is upside down. Once we apply the unified field to black holes and quasars, we find a fundamentally different explanation from the standard model for their blackness and whiteness.
I now have my unified field in good enough shape to begin theorizing about exotics like black holes and quasars. I have shown that the foundational E/M field or charge field already exists within Newton's gravitational equation, and therefore within Einstein's field equations. And I have shown how to scale the two fields (gravity and E/M) to one another at various sizes. In other words, I have shown that size matters. The two fields scale differently to one another depending on the size of your object, and the area you are considering.
I occasionally get nasty or confused or just curious letters from readers, asking me about black holes. My existing paper on black holes only points out some of the inconsistencies in current theory, but doesn't really do much more than that. These letters from readers often say something like, “You have claimed to show that the charge field exists at the macrolevel at an appreciable size. And you have claimed that this charge field is a straight function of density. Shouldn't that mean that a black hole—if it has the density we think it does—would be emitting rather than attracting? And shouldn't it be repelling all other matter, rather than sucking it in? And if black holes are fairly limited in radius, shouldn't this limit their gravitational pull, according to you?”
These readers consider this a bold stroke against me, but I can turn the tables on them and make it a bold stroke against the standard model. I can do this by simply saying, “Yes!” Yes, that is precisely what my theory implies, and, conveniently, that is precisely what the data shows. An astrophysicist friend has pointed out to me that in every astrophysical situation where we expect gravitational collapse or collapsed objects we always see huge streams of matter coming out. It doesn't matter if it's a protostar, a supernova, a neutron star, a quasar, or the center of a galaxy. We see jets and winds. Nobody has ever seen anything go in. Astronomers and mathematicians have spent 50 years trying to make stuff fall into a black hole with an accretion disk (without success) yet nobody has ever seen something fall in. He says that in conferences, these scientists admit they have no idea what the jets are made of or how they are produced. They don't even know whether it's electrons or protons or photons. If you ask why they are trying to model matter moving in when the data shows matter moving out, they say something like, “there has to be accretion, since we are modeling a gravitationally collapsed star. The object is black, so the matter must be moving in. The jets are probably produced by magnetic fields. And the reason we have no direct data for the accretion is that it is underneath all the other stuff.”
So the real reason they are modelling accretion is that they are trying to match the objects to old models that have come down to us from Einstein and Chandrasekhar and so on. They are trying to force data to fit decades-old models that were put forward before any of this data began to come in. As I have said in many other places, this is the foremost danger of having theories before you have data. Even Sherlock Holmes knew that, decades before Einstein. Conan Doyle told us, via Holmes, that it is always a mistake to begin theorizing before you have the facts, and Einstein simply didn't have all the facts. Regarding black holes, he had none of the facts, so building black hole theory on field theory is absurd. He not only had none of the facts, he had a incomplete field. Like Newton and Laplace, Einstein still thought he was dealing with a solo field. But since the field is unified, and dual, it cannot be expressed with his math. His math is correct as far as it goes, but it is very incomplete. In its current form, it can't even express the field around the Sun, much less the field around these exotics we are discovering. I have shown his field equations are 4% wrong in the field of the Sun. Imagine how much we must multiply this error in more exotic fields.
The logical thing to do, obviously, is to build a theory on the data you have, not the data you assume is there. Modern physics preens itself on a strict empiricism, but then builds these models from previous math, instead of from current and conspicuous data. That is just bad science.
To begin with, blackness just means that the visible light is not being produced, for some reason. But we know that X-rays are produced by black holes, so we know that all photons are not being attracted or accreted. Current theory has an illogical explanation for this X-ray production, but a much more logical explanation is that the black hole isn't a hole at all. For instance, we are told in one sentence that nothing, not even light, can escape from a black hole. In the very next sentence, we are told that “gas” from a companion star or object heats up as it spirals into the hole, emitting X-rays we can detect on the Earth. Well, if we can detect them, then they escaped, did they not? An X-ray is a light ray, so apparently light CAN escape from a black hole. I will be told that the first sentence only applied to light beneath the event horizon, but if light can escape from so near a black hole, then the beast loses much of its terror, I would say. More distant light, and even more distant matter, appears to be in no great danger either. Notice that we are never told why the “companion” star exists without being sucked into this gravitational beast. According to the field equations, any large slow moving object should be immediately gobbled up. Two massive objects anywhere near eachother should quickly fuse, even if one is not black, unless they are orbiting at incredible speeds.
Let us take Cygnus X-1 as just one example. Hawking has paid his bet, which means it is now accepted that this binary includes a black hole. So we have a black hole and a supergiant .2 AU separated, non-eclipsing, orbiting a dual center of mass every 5.6 days. Anyone see a problem there? What keeps them from immediately fusing? The attractive force between them must be incredible. What counteracts it? Given current theory, the only thing that could counteract such a centripetal force would be an orbital velocity. And, yes, given these parameters, the supergiant in this binary would have an orbital velocity of around 400 km/s, 14 times that of the Earth, which could be described as fairly incredible. The problem is, this supergiant is proposed to have originally had a mass of 40 suns or more, which means it would have a very low density. If you give a high-mass, low-density object an orbital velocity that high, you are going to get incredible deformation radially, according to the current equations. In other words, the supergiant should be nowhere near round. As in the Roche limit illustrations, it should be a long oval pointed at the black hole. Not only do we have no evidence of that, the current theory takes no account of it in the mechanics.
Also a big problem is the cause of this very fast orbit. According to Newton's theory, the tangential part of an orbital velocity was something the orbiter brought into the orbit itself. He called it “innate.” And according to current theory, the sideways motion still cannot be caused by the relationship between orbiter and orbited—it cannot be caused by the field. Einstein said explicitly that there was no force at the tangent, that is to say no force perpendicular to the centripetal force. Given that, it is not clear how a supergiant could ever be captured by a black hole, or how the orbit could maintain stability. Given its size, and the fact that its size is changing pretty drastically over time, it should either escape or fall in. Gravity by itself doesn't have a mechanism for correcting such things. And with solo gravity, the capture is also impossible to explain. A point particle would be hard enough to capture, since it would have to intercept the field at just the right distance and angle for its incoming speed. But a supergiant is not a point particle. Real objects are never perfect, and therefore there is no perfect distance and angle for capture. Logically, capture and stability can only be explained with a balancing of two fields. But of course if we have two fields, we have to monitor both fields in any field theory, and current theory doesn't do that.
Furthermore, again according to current equations and theory, this supergiant should be dissolving completely into the black hole. If it originally weighed 40 suns and now weighs 10, then the black hole should have gained 30. This is because the supergiant should dissolve along that radial line: the material dissolving toward the inside of the orbit should move directly toward the black hole; material ejected out from the orbit in the other direction, due to centrifugal forces, should also arc back into the black hole. Unless it is all ejected as photons, it should not be able to escape the dual gravity of these two objects; and it is ridiculous to propose that 30 solar masses are lost completely as photons, which are said to be massless. This creates further problems, since the black hole in this binary is given 10-20 solar masses, the smaller number being the current favorite. But even if we use the higher number of 20 solar masses, we have a black hole swallowing 30 solar masses to achieve a final mass of 20 solar masses, which gives it an initial mass of -10 solar masses. The basic numbers don't add up, and they have to be covered over with pages of half-baked new theories. This despite the fact that Cygnus has benefited from by far the most study and the most theory. If Cygnus is a mess, you can be sure that other examples are even bigger messes.
Yes, I am proposing that current theory is once again inside-out and upside-down. You can't explain jets and winds and all the emissions from the vicinity of black holes with gravity alone, which is why the current theories are so ridiculous. To explain emissions you require an emission field, which is what the charge field is. Once you admit the existence of a unified field, where one of the two main constituents is an emission field, you are able to explain the behavior of exotics without resorting to a string of mathematical and theoretical finesses. It is amazing that the charge field has remained such a small player in current mechanics, considering that astrophysics has all but been taken over by particle physics in the last half century. I say amazing, since particle physicists refuse to incorporate QED, which is based on the charge field, until they get inside the event horizon and start finessing the no-data equations. In the main field, like the field that exists between the black hole and the supergiant, they completely ignore the unified field. They try to solve all possible motions with Einstein's field equations, where all is thought to be controlled by gravity alone.
Some will say, “Well, if Einstein's field equations already contain the charge field, as you say, then this should work for them, even if they don't understand how the two fields combine.” The problem is, Newton's and Einstein's fields and equation do contain the charge field, but they don't contain it with the proper degree of freedom. In other words, the equations are partial and incomplete, since they don't allow for the proper scaling of the fields in varying circumstances. The field equations are mostly correct, as book equations, but they aren't fine-tunable as engineering equations or as mechanical equations. They are like engines that lack a couple of important gears. They look good in museums, but can't be made to run on the track.
In the case of Cygnus, the theory may be quite close to correct, in its main lines. In other words, it is probably the second object that is creating the strange data, and it is probably the uncommon density of that object that is causing the strange mechanics. But beyond that, the current theory is all garbage, since it hasn't monitored the charge field emitted by that object, and how the density affects that emission. Charge fields aren't normally visible, so the fact that we can't see the mechanics here, with visible data, is not surprising. I would suggest that the charge field is being accelerated right past the visible, taking it from infrared directly to X-ray or above. Either that, or the charge field is hiding somewhere else in the spectrum we haven't yet thought to monitor. To be more specific, I have shown that electrons may be stripped of spins in accelerators, ending up as photons. We may have the opposite phenomenon here with exotics, where charge photons are given extra spins, ending up as electrons or mesons or even protons. Since this possibility hasn't even been explored, to my knowledge, the theory of exotics hasn't even begun in earnest.
Let me get more specific now and apply some simple equations, to show how far off the current equations really are. As I have said, the current equations are flawed because they all come from Einstein's field equations, where the field is considered to be a field created by a single cause: gravity. Just like Newton's gravitational equations, Einstein's field equations only supply us with the final result. In other words, both Einstein and Newton give us the total field. Yes, this total field will include E/M if E/M is present, but if the equations don't monitor the E/M field in the right way, the total field will not be represented properly. In fairly simple situations, the field equations can be pushed or interpreted in a way to match data fairly closely, and that is what has happened in the field of the Sun. We have lots of good data, it is all unified field data (without anyone knowing that), so it usually yields pretty good unified field solutions. In textbook situations, all the minor problems can be ignored or swept under the rug, and it is not until we start launching satellites that we see 4% errors in the actual mechanics.
But with exotics, the cause of our data is not so easy to pin down. We have good data, but we aren't sure how it got here or why. The only thing we can do is plug it into Einstein's field equations, using assumptions that previous physicists have handed down to us. For instance, the John Michell solution is based on the assumption that a particle coming from infinity will accelerate into a star following Newton's equations precisely. But if the charge field is denser nearer a star than far away, this assumption is false. Schwarzschild solutions are based on a similar assumption, substituting Einstein for Newton. The charge field and its shape are utterly ignored, so that, again, if the charge field is denser near a spherical object, Einstein's equations cannot represent that. In fact, the entire math of collapse ignores the mechanics of a spherical charge field. If you read my paper “The Moon gives up a Secret” you can see this very quickly. If you collapsed the Earth down to the size of the Moon, keeping the original mass, you would not only increase the density of the molecular structure, you would increase the density of the emitted charge field. This would increase the repulsion felt per unit area in the field around the object. The new object would have a smaller unified field, not a larger. It would have less attraction.
If we took this to an extreme, the charge field would overwhelm the gravity field. The object would become anti-gravitational, repelling all matter and bouncing all light that came near it. This could happen with any size object, as long as the density overwhelmed the radius. This may be what we are seeing with quasars. But with black holes, we may be witnessing a different extreme. The black hole hasn't overwhelmed gravity with E/M, it has only reached a size and density where its recycling of the charge field has become an odd sort of machine. The object still takes in charge photons and light photons, like normal objects, but the density of the object squeezes all captured photons, giving them extra spins. The photons aren't reflected or refracted, instead they are absorbed, pushed through dense matter, and energized by these extra collisions. The photons only need to be given eight extra spins to emerge as electrons. This would explain the blackness, since we see photons as white or color, but we do not see electrons as white or color. And it might explain X-rays, because these electrons emerging from the black hole would emit X-rays under certain conditions.
You will say, “But that makes the black hole a box of creation, with more energy out than in.” Yes, in the short term, it does. But this would not break any rules of energy conservation, as long as the black hole loses the energy it gives to the electrons. Perhaps black holes have shorter lifespans, and their quick loss of energy may be explained in just this way. In this way, they are just a sort of black supernova, exploding somewhat more slowly, but still in the main releasing energy. Yes, they pull in light. But they re-emit this light as larger particles like electrons, making the total energy positive. As regards light, they are a sort of hole. As regards total energy, they are a source of emission.
This might also explain one of the sources of electrons. If you want to explain the universe as the outcome of only one initial particle, you can explain the creation of other particles in this way. Larger particles are created by passing smaller particles through denser media, thereby giving them more spins.
I will be told this is circular, since it would then require dense matter to create matter. But perhaps the dense media need not be matter, in that sense. Perhaps a field of photons can be made dense enough, as in some sort of photon plasma, to start this sequence. Admittedly, it is not clear where the initial containment or pressure comes from, since gravity seems ill-prepared to overcome c, but this problem comes up in any initiation sequence, whether it is photonic or not. For example, it is not clear why all matter was brought together in a Big Bang. An initial pressure, infinite or not, is just assumed. But I digress.
What this means in the short term is that all the exact solutions of Einstein's field equations are meaningless. Since the field equations are flawed and very incomplete, finding exact solutions to them is like finding how many angels can dance on the head of a pin. This applies to all the various solutions, including the Schwarzschild solutions, the Kerr solutions, the Penrose solutions and so on. The singularities in the equations are of no mechanical or physical import, since the equations are wrong. The singularities found are really nothing but signs pointing to where the field equations are weakest. Good equations would have no singularities, since Nature can contain no singularities. Zeros and infinities in solutions should not be read as event horizons or unidirectional membranes, they should be read as places where the equations fail most obviously and spectacularly. It is amazing to me that decades of physicists and mathematicians have ignored this elementary truth. Clearly they have ignored it because it was most efficient to ignore it. They were in love with their own equations, regardless of any data, and like any good lover they refused to look at the glaring faults of their beloved. Seeing no way to correct these obvious faults, they simply built the marriage around them. And anyone who noticed the faults was an interloper, a boor, and probably a misogynist. Only a hater of women would dare to look closely at them, right? Only a hater of math and physics would dare to criticize it. Only an enemy of science would point out its fat ankles and bad skin, its missing teeth and its chewed fingernails.
But now for the math, finally. Let us assume that a quasar is just a big mirror, reflecting all light, charge, and matter that comes to it. And let us assume that my unified field numbers for the Earth are correct. I have, after all, confirmed them in at least three papers that have nothing to do with the paper that predicted them. I developed the numbers in “The Moon Gives up a Secret,” then confirmed them in “The Bohr Magneton,” “On Atmospheric Pressure,” and “Gravity at the Quantum Level.” My Cavendish paper might also be said to confirm them. So the question is, what density would the Earth have to have, keeping its current radius, to begin bouncing all light and energy? At what density would the charge field of the Earth equal its solo gravity? Well, solo gravity is 9.81, charge is .009545, and we want to bring the second number up to the first. Since the second number is a function of density, we just raise the density until that number is 9.81. So we increase the density by 1028x. What would the new mass be? M = DV, so 5670g/cm3 x 1.08 x 1027cm3 = 6.12 x 1027 kg. So if we compressed about three Jupiters down to the size of the Earth, we would create a zero gravity planet. Would this planet then act like a small quasar? No. To actually bounce all incoming energy and matter and light would require the charge field to exceed gravity by some amount, not just balance it. The energy at any point on the surface of the object would need to exceed the energy of the incoming matter or light, to bounce it. Our zero-gravity planet would have no energy on the surface, and would neither attract nor repel any incoming energy.
How dense would our planet have to be to bounce all light up to the energy of an X-ray, say? If a hard X-ray has an energy of 100keV and a diameter of 1 x 10-19m, the planet would require a total energy of 5 x 1038eV or 8 x 1019 J to exclude the rays from any given point. If we took the charge field up to 10, that would give us 50 J/m2, over 5.1 x 1014m2, which is 2.55 x 1016 J. Still not enough. We actually need to take the charge field up to about 560 to get the right total energy, which means we have to increase the density by about 58,700x. Which gives us a mass of 3.5 x 1029 kg. So if we took a planet about 1/5 the mass of the Sun and compressed it to the size of the Earth, we could bounce everything up to the energy of an X-ray.
This phenomenon is not to be confused with albedo, which is really a measure of the ability of a surface to scatter light, turning it white. The prime example of this is clouds, which scatter light very effectively both here and on Venus (Venus has a bond albedo of .75, which is quite high, due to clouds). But clouds can hardly bounce light like I am proposing here. They simply aren't dense enough to bounce all incoming radiation. Even a dense, very white solid surface can't possibly turn 100% of radiation, as is claimed. Albedo is given a top number of 1, which the moon of Saturn, Enceladus,is said to approach at .99. But Enceladus has a density of only 1.6, so it can hardly be expected to bounce all incident radiation. All incident radiation won't even impact a molecule at that density. An albedo of 1 doesn't mean that a photon is guaranteed to hit a molecule on the surface, it means that if a photon hits a molecule on the surface, it will be reflected rather than absorbed. But in my calculations above, I am calculating a density that will turn all photons.
You will say, “No, albedo actually is a reflection of all radiation. First we measure the energy of the radiation, then we bounce known radiation off various things, to compare them.” Sounds great until you remember that to measure the energy of radiation, you have to bounce it off some measuring device, which device has a density and a unified field of its own. We do not happen to have an infinite density device or even a zero-gravity device to measure the energy of radiation, so albedo is only a measure of various surfaces relative to our device. Since everything known to man and used by man is very porous to photons, we cannot possibly say that an albedo of 1 is bouncing all E/M radiation.
For this reason, my very dense planet above will have an “albedo” so high it will appear to be radiating energy, like a star. The albedo will be so much higher than anything we are used to in the Solar System that we will try to assign the brightness to other mechanisms. Beyond that, we can make this object much much brighter just by making it bigger. We start with an object with 50 solar masses, say, and compress it by some mechanism down to the size of Jupiter. We will then have a fantastically bright object, with all the brightness coming from reflection and none coming from fusion.
This may be an explanation for super-brightness, but what about darkness? To explain darkness, we simply require a very great density, to squeeze photons into electrons, but also a very great gravity, so that the density does not overwhelm the radius and cause the charge field to overwhelm the gravity field. Let us play with Cygnus X-1 to make it fit this hypothesis. What if we give the “black hole” the full radius of the separation between the objects, .2AU? The supergiant will then be just rolling along the surface of the black object. It will not fuse with the black object, because the force between them is not enough to overcome the surface tensions of the two objects. The black object has a near-zero force on its surface, and the supergiant's gravity is offset by its own tangential motion. Is that impossible to propose? No. Well then, what is the maximum density this black object could have, given its radius? Remember, we want to keep the charge field less than the gravity field, but only a little less. This is to be sure the black object stays black (does not bounce the light). If gravity is a straight function of radius, as I have proposed, then with a radius of .2AU the gravity of this black object will be 46,000m/s2. If we want the charge field to be 45,990m/s2, then we can let the density be 480,000 times that of the Earth, and still not create a white object. The unified or attractive field of this black object will be 10m/s2, but it will have a density easily great enough to squeeze photons into electrons, by giving them more outer spins. Photons moving through this dense material will be forced into more collisions, and these collisions will generate more spins. More spins cause the particle to change forms.
You will say we have no evidence particles can change form like this, either in accelerators or in exotics, but that is not true. We have lots of evidence of mesons decaying into lower particles, so if you can have decomposition you should be able to have composition, under the right circumstances. We also have plenty of evidence of composition, since we have “seen” many particles in accelerators over the proton mass. These particles must be composed of smaller, more elementary particles, and if smaller particles can form particles over the proton mass, why should electrons not be composed by photons? According to my theory, all particles are spin multiples of the photon, and no one has yet shown any reason that cannot be so. The only argument against me is that massed particles cannot be composed of massless particles, but it has not been shown that photons are indeed massless. That is a hypothesis much balder than any hypothesis of mine, and it has not been given one meaningful hair in all the decades it has persisted.
It is probable that we don't need a density that high to explain the black object. We can therefore shrink both the radius and the density, to fit other requirements. I only did the math like that to show clearly that great density won't necessarily push the charge repulsion beyond the gravitational attraction, creating a super-white object. Depending on the radius, a great density can either cause blackness or super-whiteness.
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