No, this isn't a short course on how to manufacture your own Uranium at home, just using bleach and ball bearings. This is an analysis of the Uranium nucleus, showing how it is fused in stars.
I just published a long paper on building the elements. In it, I explained the structure and radioactivity of Technetium and Radon. Now we will go above Radon and look at Uranium.
We are told that Uranium is radioactive, but U238 has a HL of 4.5 billion years—which coincidentally happens to be the age of the Earth. That is fairly stable. Much more stable than Radon, which has a HL of about 4 days. This gives us a clue as to how Uranium is built.
Another clue is the fact that Uranium235 splits down to Krpyton. From studying the barebones of elemental structure in my last paper, we would have expected it to split down to Xenon. Radon is built from Xenon, not Krypton.
Because Uranium is more stable than Radon, we assume that Uranium is not built up from a Radon base. It also can't be built up from Krypton, in a level-stacking method, because we would then have 56 protons above level 3. Only 32 of those could go in level 4, so level 5 would have 24. That looks at first like a good number, since it is 6X4, but it doesn't explain how Barium forms as the other product of Uranium fission. A large nucleus that degenerated down to a Krypton base wouldn't have any form in the rest of the nucleus. It should just degenerate into alpha radiation.
This means that nuclei above Radon are fused from larger nuclei to begin with. They aren't built up from alphas like the smaller nuclei. Uranium was fused from Krypton and Barium in the big stars and galactic cores, which explains its weak link.
Let us diagram the formation of U235, to show this in more detail. In these diagrams, the colored bars are meant to represent circular disks, seen from on edge. That is why they are drawn as squashed ellipses. It is also understood that they each have a hole in the middle, or a charge minimum, through which the recycling of the charge field takes place. To read more on this, you should see my previous paper on the Periodic Table, or my paper on building the nucleus without the strong force. For now, just think of each disk like a CD, with a small hole in the middle. The CD's then are stacked hole to edge, or field minimum to field maximum.
Krypton is made from double alphas, so each red disk represents two alphas in a short stack (see my Helium diagram in previous papers). Barium is made from triple alphas, so each blue-green disk is three alphas. Barium is basically a Xenon base plus two protons in the holes. The other outer holes are filled with neutrons, to maintain stability, but I will simplify the diagrams by leaving out these neutrons. I have drawn only the neutrons (green) that fill the free holes in the linking protons.
We can see immediately why U235 is so easy to split, and it has very little to do with binding energy and nothing to do with the strong force. When Uranium is built, only enough pressure is needed to put the proton in the hole (the proton is black in the diagram). Neutrons then arrive to block up the free holes, keeping the charge field from moving through that gap and causing a split.
We also see why Rubidium is a common product of fission. In that case, the proton breaks off from only one hole, and the Krypton half keeps the proton. Krypton with one extra proton is Rubidium. We can also see why the neutron is the preferred particle in splitting Uranium. As you see, we don't even have to overcome a binding energy here, since we aren't causing a break where the proton goes in the hole. What we are doing is bumping a neutron out with another neutron, uncovering that hole, and allowing the charge field to rush through. The charge field then causes the break for us.
When I say that we aren't overcoming a binding energy, I am just pointing out that it takes much less force to bump that neutron out of the hole than it would to break the proton out of the linking hole directly. A slow-moving free neutron is enough to bump the existing neutron out of the hole, and once the hole is clear, the charge field rushes in, creating imbalance. This imbalance then overcomes the binding energy at the edge of the proton. So it is the charge field that is doing our work for us here.
I will be asked, “Why is it any easier to bump a neutron out of a hole than to break a proton out of a hole?” The short answer is because the proton is recycling charge and the neutron is not. The neutron just acts as a stopper in the hole, blocking the charge field with its body. But when the proton fits into a hole like this, we are representing a charge field linkage, not just a physical positioning. The charge moves through the proton in a specific direction, and then goes through the hole, again in a specific direction. The protons are channeling charge through the nucleus in a controlled manner. The neutrons are not. They are channeling charge, yes, but in a lesser way. They are channeling it by blocking it.
This question has never before been answered in a straightforward manner. Just ask the mainstream why a single slow-moving neutron can overcome the strong force and split Uranium. Then compare their answer to mine.
We can build Uranium from Xenon as well, using the same diagram. Xenon is diagrammed precisely like Krypton, but with 3-alpha bases rather than 2-alpha. We just pair it with Strontium, which has the same diagram as Barium. When Uranium breaks up, the Xenon may keep the linking proton, giving us Caesium as the product. I said in my previous paper that all elements above Iodine should be capable of construction from either a Krypton base or a Xenon base, and with Uranium we have proof of that. Uranium can be built either way.
In fact, Uranium can also be made from a Tin base, since that is how we get Technetium and Rhodium as products in fission. The star builds Uranium from Tin + Molybdenum, with a triple proton link created at any of the six corners. This is a stronger link than the Krypton + Barium link, and it explains why U238 is much more stable than U235. It is U238 that is made from Tin + Molybdenum. If you study the diagram below, you will see why the link is stronger. Tin has almost the same diagram as Molybdenum, but with two protons in each of the outer holes instead of one. This means that wherever we choose to put the link, we will have a three-pronged link. When U238 splits, the Molybdenum may take away an extra prong, making it Technetium. In that case, Indium may be the other product. The prongs can break off in any number of ways, giving us Ruthenium and Cadmium, for instance.
Of course, this begs the question, “What if we fuse two Tins? Shouldn't that be even stronger?” In that case we would have Fermium, but Fermium hasn't historically been made that way. It is currently made by bombarding smaller nuclei like Curium. If Fermium exists as Tin + Tin, it hasn't yet been discovered. It probably can't be manufactured, because we don't have the temperature or pressure capabilities; and if stars are making it, we aren't aware of it. When it is discovered, it should have a HL of over 10 billion years, making it all but stable. The only reason I can see that it wouldn't be stable is if the new nucleus were too balanced. A nucleus made from equal parts might spin too well, creating too much internal angular momentum.